Pizza in der DDR

In der DDR-Gastonomie gab es Pizzerien als „sortimentspezialisierte Schnellgaststätten“[1] und als „Pizzeria“. Als ein Baustein für die gastronomische Schnellversorgung sollten vor allem die Imbisskette „pizza-buffet“ in den Stadtzentren und Feriengebieten den Andrang auf die bereits vorhandene Gastronomie reduzieren.[2] Zentralisierte Vorproduktion von Teig und Belag sowie Varianten des Selfservice sollten den Aufwand für die gastronomische Verköstigung mindern. Unter dem Namen „Krustastube“ eröffnete 1979 in Berlin eine erste „Spezialimbißgaststätte“[3], die in ihrer Grundstruktur das Konzept des „pizza-buffets“ vorwegnahm.

Krusta war eine DDR-spezifische Kreation. Sie hatte als warme Zwischenmahlzeit Vorbilder im Thüringer Speck- und Zwiebelkuchen, in der italienischen Pizza und in der mexikanischen Tortilla.[4] Sie sollte nach Ansicht ihrer Erfinder „aus einem mit Gewürzen, z.B. Paprika und Kümmel, aufbereiteten Hefeteig“ bestehen. Dieser wird „mit unterschiedlichen Rohstoffen wie Wurst, Fisch, Hackmasse, Tomaten, Zwiebeln, Käse, Eiern usw. belegt, gewürzt und dann gebacken“. Der Belag hatte eine hohe Variablität und bestand aus „ganzjährig und in ausreichender Menge zur Verfügung stehenden Rohstoffen“.[5] Neben dieser freien Adaption rationalisierter Nahrungsmittelverwertung, zu der die Pizza lediglich Pate stand, bemühte sich die DDR-Gastronomie aber auch direkt um Herstellung von Pizzen.

Pizza-Patisserien in der DDR

In Leipzig eröffnete im Jahre 1980 der Konditormeister Erhard Landschreiber eine Pizzeria-Patisseria.[6] Ebenfalls seit 1980 bot die Gastronomie in Karl-Marx-Stadt (Chemnitz), Jena und Zittau Pizza an.[7] Für Dresden stellte Klaus Trautwein, der Abteilungsleiter im Gaststättenbereich der HO-Bezirksdirektion Dresden, in Aussicht, dass dort bald schon eine Schnellgaststätte von “pizza-buffet” oder eine Pizzeria, in der der Gast länger als im Imbiss verweilen könne, eröffnen würde.[8] Für das Jahr 1988 zählte eine Kapazitätsstudie zur Schnellgastronomie für die DDR insgesamt 42 „pizza-buffet“-Imbissgaststätten.[9] Davon lagen fünf im Bezirk Dresden.[10]

Offensichtlich entfaltete die westdeutsche Karriere der Pizza[11] eine Faszination, die auch in der DDR zur Imitation anregte. In der sozialistischen Systemgastronomie wurde der Teig für den Pizzaboden und die „Belagsorten“ (Rolf  Kausch) industriell vorgefertigt bzw. zentral produziert. Dazu hatte das Rationalisierungs- und Forschungszentrum Gaststätten, Hotels, Gemeinschaftsverpflegung, Berlin (RFZ Gaststätten) gemeinsam mit dem Institut für Getreidewirtschaft in Potsdam-Rehbrücke und dem Backwarenkombinat Leipzig die Rezepturen entwickelt. Den Pizzaboden mischte man aus Weizenmehl, Hefe, Salz, Öl und Vollmilchpulver. Die Gemüsepizza bspw. wurde mit Tomatenketchup, marinierter Paprika, Mischgemüse, Zwiebeln, Gewürzgurken, geräuchertem Speck, Jagdwurst, Kapern und Käse belegt.[12]

Variationen der DDR-Pizza

Mit den Speisen, die in Westdeutschland als italienisch verkauft wurden, hatte das wenig gemeinsam.[13] Näher kamen dem schon Kreationen, die einzelne Köche in der gehobenen Gastronomie gelegentlich herstellten. Das Dresdner Interhotel „Hotel Bastei“ bot in seinem Restaurant „Passant“ zwar Pizza nicht auf der regulären Speisekarte an. Im Rahmen von kulinarisch-thematischen Tagen zur italienischen Küche offerierte der Küchenleiter seinen Gästen jedoch vom 25. bis zum 27. November 1987 „Pizza alla napolitana (Pizza auf Neapolitaner Art, mit Tomaten, Käse und Sardellen)“. Dass die kulinarische Einordnung des Gerichts noch schwer fiel. Das zeigte sich darin, dass der Küchenchef seine Pizza unter die Vorspeisen aufnahm.[14]

Pizza Buffet DDR
Pizza Buffet auf einem Dresdner Markt, vermutlich im Jahr 1980. (Foto: Gastronomie 4/1980, S. 7. Veröffentlichung mit freundlicher Genehmigung des Fotografen Rudolf Scheibe.)

Auch im Dresdner Jugendtouristenhotel „Schloss Eckberg“ wurde zur Versorgung von internationalen Reisegruppen gelegentlich Pizza hergestellt. Dazu fertigte man dort Ende der 1980er Jahre einen Teig aus Weizenmehl, Wasser, Salz und Hefe. Dieser wurde bereits vor dem Backen mit etwas Majoran gewürzt. Dieser Teig wurde ausgerollt, auf ein mit Margarine gefettetes Backblech gelegt. Anschließend buk man ihn zunächst etwa 10 Minuten bei 200 C° im Ofen leicht vor. Sodann belegten die Köche ihre Pizza mit angebratenen Bratwurstscheiben sowie leicht angedünsteten Zwiebeln. Nach saisonaler Verfügbarkeit wurden weiterhin frische Tomatenscheiben darüber gelegt. Abschließend wurde die Pizza noch flächendeckend mit geriebenem Käse oder mit Schnittkäsescheiben belegt. Zur Dekoration bestrich man die Hälfte der Käsescheiben mit Tomatenmark. Dann legte der Koch einen Käsedeckel abwechselnd aus Streifen von tomatierten und nichttomatierten Scheiben. Aufgrund des dicken Belages ging der Teig dieser Pizza am Rand kräftig auf. Er erreichte aber trotz einer nach heutigen Maßstäben ungewöhnlichen Teigdicke ansonsten lediglich eine Höhe von 1-2 cm. Dem Küchenchef wurde eine Reise nach Westdeutschland genehmigt. Dort lernte er Pizza-Rezepte kennen, die in der westdeutschen Gastrnomie aktuell waren. Seine Mitarbeiter regten daraufhin an, auch eine Pizza zu kreieren.[15]

Pizza im DDR-Kochbuch

Engagierte Köche der Dresdner DDR-Gastronomie nahmen Kochtrends der bundesdeutschen Küche aufnahmen, sofern sie die Gelegenheit dazu hatten. Sie fertigten eher kreative als originalgetreue Varianten von Pizza an. In der einschlägigen gastronomischen Fachliteratur finden sich Pizza-Rezepte jedoch nur spärlich.  Das „Küchen-Lexikon“ definierte einen „Pizzaboden“ so: „mit Ei und Milch zubereiteten Hefeteig 1 cm dick ausrollen, rund formen, backen“.[16]

Dagegen enthielt das DDR-Kochbuch für den privaten Haushalt „Kochen. Ein neues Rezeptbuch für alle Leute, die mit Leidenschaft backen, brutzeln, kochen und mixen und … essen“ bereits Ende der 1970er Jahre Rezepte für Pizza[17], die allerdings ebenfalls von den puristischen Vorstellungen der Associazione Verace Pizza Napoletana erheblich abwichen.[18] Bei der „Tessiner Pizza“ dieses Kochbuchs beispielsweise handelt es sich nicht um eine Pizza, sondern um eine Auflaufvariante mit gefüllten Tomaten in saurer Sahne.[19]

Ähnliches gilt für die „Pizza nach römischer Art“, bei der zunächst eine Springform mit einem Milchhefeteig ausgekleidet wurde. Anschließend wurde dieses Teigfassung befüllt mit einer Masse aus Gehacktem halb und halb, Ei, Tomatenmark, Semmelbröseln, Paprika, Salz, Pfeffer sowie gehackter Petersilie und Schnittlauch.[20] Selbst die „Pizza alla napoletana“, deren Teig ebenfalls mit Milch angerührt werden sollte, und die mit einer Mischung aus Tomaten oder Tomatenketchup, Salami, Zwiebeln in Scheiben, Paprika- und Schinkenstreifen „bunt“ zu belegen war, dürfte arrangiert als „mittelgroßer runder Fladen … oder auf einem Backblech“[21] allenfalls optische Ähnlichkeiten mit einer Pizza Margherita oder Pizza Marinara assoziiert haben. Denn anders als die beiden typisch neapolitanischen Pizzen erzeugte schon die Kombination der Zutaten ganz andere aromatische Akkorde.

Neapolitanische Pizza

Pizza Marinara:

  • Tomaten
  • Olivenöl
  • Oregano
  • Knoblauch

Pizza Margherita:

  • Tomaten
  • Olivenöl
  • Mozzarella aus Kuh- oder Büffelmilch
  • geriebener Käse
  • Basilikum

 

Zudem unterscheidet sich auch ein Hefeteig, der mit Milch angerührt wurde, in Konsistenz und Geschmack von einem Hefeteig mit Wasser. Den einfachen Hefeteig hält nicht allein die Associazione Verace Pizza Napoletana bei Pizza-Zubereitung für verbindlich:

  • 1 l Wasser
  •  40-60 g Salz
  • 3 g Frischhefe
  • 1,6-1,8 kg Hartweizenmehl Typ 450 (tipo 00)

Die DDR-Systemgastronomie adaptierte Pizza zwar auf kreative Weise. Diese war aber weniger ein italienisches Gericht als eine an den Geschmack der Küche im Sozialismus angepasste Speise. Pizza Margherita – aus der Pizzeria oder der Supermarkt-Tiefkühltruhe – kam erst nach 1989 in die neuen Bundesländer und nach Dresden.[22] Sie war zuvor ein Bestandteil der westdeutschen Esskultur geworden, die rasch auch in den neuen Bundesländern Fuß fasste.[23]

 

Krustabeläge

  • Eierkrusta: Eier, Speck, Kapern
  • Rostocker Fischkrusta: Dosenfisch in Tomate, Käse, Tomaten
  • Räucherfischkrusta: Eier, Räucherfisch
  • Weiße Geflügelkrusta: weißes Geflügelragout
  • Braune Geflügelkrusta: braunes Geflügelragout
  • Räucherbroilerkrusta: Rührei mit Räucherbroiler
  • Schlachtfestkrusta: Schweinbauch, Sauerkraut
  • Ungarische Letschokrusta: Letscho, Tomaten, Schweinebauch
  • Pfefferkrusta: Rinderburst, Rinderschmorfleisch, Zwiebel, Tomatenmark, gestoßene Pfefferkörner
  • Wurst-Käse-Krusta: Bierschinken, Schnittkäse, Tomatenketchup
  • Hackfleischkrusta: Schweinebauch, Rinderkochfleisch, Tomatenketchup, Zwiebeln, Eier, Schnittkäse
  • Schwarzmeerkrusta: Salami, Anchovis, Käse, Tomatenketchup, Saure Sahne, Schnittkäse, Tomaten, Zwiebeln
  • Südländische Krusta: Tomatenketchup, Salami, Saure Sahne, Zwiebeln, Schnittkäse
  • Pikante Krusta: Sauerkohl, Gewürzgurke, marinierter Paprika, Zwiebeln, Kapern, Schweinebauch, Kondensvollmilch, Senf, Tomatenketchup
  • Teufelskrusta: Paprika, Peperoni, Gewürzgurke, Zwiebeln, Tomaten, magerer Speck (z.T. gekocht als Fleischbelag), Salami
  • Jägerkrusta: Frische Waldpilze, Zwiebeln, Speck, Schweinebauch
  • Plowdiver Gewetschkrusta: Tomaten, Gemüsepaprika, Zwiebeln, Tomatenketchup, Schweinebauch, Speck, Peperoni
  • Szegediner Krautkrusta: Sauerkraut, Paprika, Tomaten, Tomatenketchup, Schweinekamm, Schweinebauch, Saure Sahne, Salami, Zwiebeln
  • Asiatische Ingwerkrusta: Schweinebauch, eingelegter Ingwer, Wurzelgemüse
  • Kubanische Ananaskrusta: Bierschinken, Ananas, Schnittkäse
  • Französische Champignonkrusta: Bierschinken, Speck, Zwiebeln, Champignons, Käse
  • Champignonkrusta: Salami, Tomaten, Tomatenketchup, Speck, Champignons, Käse
  • Gemüsekrusta: verschiedene Gemüsesorten
  • Blumenkohlkrusta: Eier, Blumenkohl
  • Zwiebelkrusta: Eier, Speck, Zwiebeln, Porree
  • Quark-Sardinenkrusta: Quark, Zwiebeln, Ölsardinen
  • Quark-Tomatenkrusta: Quark, Zwiebeln, Tomatenketchup, Tomaten
  • Apfelkrusta: Äpfel, Rosinen, Bienenhonig, Mandeln, Eier
  • Süße Quarkkrusta: Quark, Eier, Rosinen, Mandeln, Vanille

Zum Sortiment für Krustabeläge vgl. Hinze, Wolfgang/Bosler, Bernd: Prinziplösung Spezialimbißgaststätte Krusta, Berlin 1977, S. 11-13.

[1]

Vgl. Herrmann, F. Jürgen: Küchen-Lexikon, Leipzig 1986², S. 625; Kausch, Rolf/Till Ruth (Hg.): Imbißzentrum. Planung – Realisierung – Prozeßorganisation [Nur für den Dienstgebrauch], Berlin 1985, S. 10.

[2]

Vgl. dazu ebd. und Blödorn, Hans-Peter/Kausch Rolf M.: Zentral produziert – schnell konsumiert. Pikante Pizzas vom Blech. Zur neuen Prinziplösung „pizza-buffet“ für die gastronomische Schnellversorgung. In: Gastronomie. Fachzeitschrift für Gaststätten, Hotels und Gemeinschaftsverpflegung, 1, 1980, 11. Jg., S. 15. Allgemein zur gastronomischen Selbstbedienung im „Pizza-buffet“ oder „Krusta-buffet“ vgl. Herrmann, F. Jürgen: Küchen-Lexikon, Leipzig 1986², S. 156 (Abbildung des Signets für den Gasstättentyp), 620 und 625 (Beschreibung des Gaststättentyps); Kausch, Rolf: pizzabuffet. Eine Imbißgaststätte mit Pfiff. In: Handelswoche, 11, 1980, S. 28.

[3]

Kausch, Rolf: Spezialgaststätte „Krusta“. In: Möbel und Wohnraum. Fachzeitschrift für Möbelindustrie und Raumgestaltung, 33. Jg., Heft 1. Januar 1979, S. 20.

[4]

Vgl. Hinze, Wolfgang/Bosler, Bernd: Prinziplösung Spezialimbißgaststätte Krusta, Berlin 1977, S. 3.

[5]

Vgl. ebd. S. 3 f.

[6]

Kausch, Rolf: Erste >>Pizzeria<< in Leipzig. In: Möbel und Wohnraum. Fachzeitschrift für Möbelindustrie und Raumgestaltung, 33. Jg., Heft 1. Januar 1980, Titelseite und S. 13. Den Hinweis auf Erhard Landschreiber und seine Pizzeria-Patisseria verdanke ich Herbert Pilz.

[7]

Wolf, Michael: … und in der Pause eine Pizza. Verbindliches Rahmensortiment der Zwischenverpflegung. In: Gastronomie. Fachzeitschrift für Gaststätten, Hotels und Gemeinschaftsverpflegung, 2, 1982, 12. Jg., S. 29; Remde, Wolfgang: Schnell versorgt im „pizza-buffet“ Jena. Gastronomie. Fachzeitschrift für Gaststätten, Hotels und Gemeinschaftsverpflegung, 3, 1981, 12. Jg., S. 13; Was ist Imbiß-spezial. Wir sprachen mit Klaus Trautwein, Abteilungsleiter im Bereich Gaststätten der HO-BD Dresden. In: Handelswoche, 11, 1980, S. 28. Für Rostock vgl. Kausch, Rolf: Pizza und Pastete kamen an. Schnellgaststätten bewährten sich – Einige Erfahrungen der Zentralen Messe der Meister von morgen. In: Handelswoche, 26, 1982, S. 46 f.; Für Ahlbeck vgl. Wi.: Ein Renner: frischzubereitete Pizzas. Gastronomie. Fachzeitschrift für Gaststätten, Hotels und Gemeinschaftsverpflegung, 1, 1987, 18. Jg., S. 26. Die Handelswoche/KONSUMGenossenschafter vom 12. April 1984, Jg. 2, 8/1984, S. 9 zeigt ein Bild eines Pizzabüffets auf dem Parkplatz in Moritzburg.

[8]

Was ist Imbiß-spezial. Wir sprachen mit Klaus Trautwein, Abteilungsleiter im Bereich Gaststätten der HO-BD Dresden. In: Handelswoche, 11, 1980, S. 28.

[9]

Vgl. Kausch, Rolf/Triebe, Heide: Die Schnellgastronomie der DDR in ausgewählten Kapazitäts- und Leistungsziffern. Stand 31.12.1988, Leipzig 1989, S. 9, 26 und 27.

[10]

Vgl. Ebd., S. 9.

[11]

Zur Karriere der Pizza in Westdeutschland vgl. Thoms, Ulrike: Sehnsucht nach dem guten Leben. Italienische Küche in Deutschland. In: Mohrmann, Ruth-E. (Hg.): Essen und Trinken in der Moderne, Münster New York München Berlin 2006, S. 43-54; Möhring, Maren: Fremdes Essen. Die Geschichte der ausländischen Gastronomie in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, München 2012, S. 249-252.

[12]

Vgl. Kausch, Rolf: pizzabuffet. Eine Imbißgaststätte mit Pfiff. In: Handelswoche, 11, 1980, S. 28. Hier finden sich auch die Zutatenlisten für Fleischpizza (Bologneser Soße, Rinderschmorfleisch, Gewürzgurken, Käse, Vollfett), Kassler-Pizza (Bologneser Soße, Salami, Kassler, Käse, Vollfett) und Bauern-Pizza (Tomatenketchup, Salami, Gewürzgurken, Schinkenspeck, Zwiebeln, geräucherter Speck und Käse), sowie Bologneser Soße (Schabefleisch, magerer Speck, Zwiebel, Suppengrün, Tomatensaft, Brühpaste). Zur Vorfertigung vgl. auch Haase, Manfred: Leistungsstark und effektiv. In: Gastronomie. Fachzeitschrift für Gaststätten, Hotels und Gemeinschaftsverpflegung, 2, 1988, 18. Jg., S. 10; Vgl. auch Kausch, Rolf/Triebe, Heide: Sortiments- und Rezepturdienst. Pasteten, Pizzas, Grilletten und andere Imbißartikel. Rezepturen und Herstellungshinweise von Produkten für die Schnellgastronomie, Berlin 1986, S. 15-32 und 59-63.

[13]

Zum Unterschied zwischen westdeutscher (belagbetonter) und italienischer (teigbetonter) Pizza vgl. Möhring, Maren: Fremdes Essen. Die Geschiche der ausländischen Gastronomie in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, München 2012, S. 272.

[14]

Schulmuseum des Beruflichen Schulzentrums für Gastgewerbe Dresden „Ernst Lößnitzer“, Speisekartensammlung: Interhotel DDR, Hotel Bastei, Dresden: Das Kollektiv des Restaurants „Passant“ begrüßt Sie zu Tagen der italienischen Küche und wünscht Ihnen einen angenehmen Aufenthalt und recht guten Appetit. 25-27. Nov. 1987, A. Wolf Küchenleiter.

[15]

Freundliche Mitteilung von Herrn Andreas Them, der in den 1980er Jahren im Jugendtouristenhotel „Schloss Eckberg“ als Koch angestellt war. Der Küchenchef selbst hatte von seiner Reise ein Rezept für Kartoffelgratin mitgebracht. Dieses Gericht gehörte bis dahin nicht zum Repertoire des Jugendtouristenhotels „Schloss Eckberg“.

[16]

Herrmann, F. Jürgen: Küchen-Lexikon, Leipzig 1986², S. 529. Vgl. auch ebd., S. 170 (Schneckenpizza). Die Käsepizza (ebd., S. 163) soll anders als die Schneckenpizza aus einem Hefeteig mit Butter oder Margarine, Zucker, Zitrone und Muskat zubereitet werden (vgl. ebd., S. 520). – Das „Lehrbuch für Köche. Band 4: Speisenlehre und Angebotslehre, 4. Auflage Leipzig 1985“ bietet dagegen weder ein Rezept für Pizza noch für Krusta.

[17]

Enderlein, Hanna: Unser großes Kochbuch. Vom Frühstück bis zum Abendbrot. Über 1500 Rezepte und 80 Farbtafeln, Leipzig 1970, 9. Auflage, S. 335: „Pizza. Hefeteig, Öl, Tomaten, 2 bis 3 Anchovis, 1 kleine Zwiebel, Kräuter, Salz, Pfeffer oder Paprika. Den Hefeteig auf rundem Blech mit Öl bestreichen, mit Tomatenscheiben und zerschnittenen Anschovisfilets belegen, gehackte Zwiebel, Kräuter und Gewürze darüberstreuen, nach Wunsch Käsestreifen auflegen. Mit Öl beträufeln, backen und warm auftragen.“ Das Impressum nennt „Herbert Müller, Küchenmeister im Ratskeller, Leipzig [und] Klaus Ihlow, Küchenmeister in Auerbachs Keller, Leipzig“ als zuständig für „Zubereitung und Anrichten“. Das Pizzarezept fehlt in der ersten Auflage von „Unser großes Kochbuch“. Es ist daher nachträglich in die Kategorie „Pikantes Gebäck“ aufgenommen worden, die eine „ungezwungene Gästebewirtung ohne zeitraubendes Vorbereiten“ ermöglichen soll.

[18]

Zu den äußerst präzisen Rezepturen der Associazione Verace Pizza Napoletana vgl. http://www.pizzanapoletana.org/images/file/disciplinare%202008%20UK.pdf; oder http://www.pizzanapoletana.org/images/file/Disciplinare_avpn.pdf;  Zugriff am 02.07.2010.

[19]

Vgl. Florstedt, Renate: Kochen. Ein neues Rezeptbuch für alle Leute, die mit Leidenschaft backen, brutzeln, konchen und mixen und … essen. 1680 Rezepte für Sie, Leipzig 1979, S. 416 f. Das Impressum nennt „Herbert Müller, Klaus Haustein Ratskeller, Leipzig [und die] Versuchsküche des Verlages für die Frau“ als zuständig für „Zubereitung und Anrichten“.

[20]

Vgl. Ebd., S. 376.

[21]

Zum Rezept dieser „Pizza alla napoletana“ vgl. Ebd., S. 417. Die 9. Auflage dieses Buches, die 1986 in Leipzig erschien, enthält im Bildteil zwischen S. 288 und 289 eine Abbildung, die eine „Pizza alla napoletana“ zeigt, die in einer Tortenform gebacken wurde.

Eine weitere Variante der „Pizza nach neapolitaner Art“ bot Kraatz, Dieter/Maus, Paul: Aus Europas Küchen. Ein Streifzug durch ausgewählte National- und Landesküchen, Leipzig 1988, 4. Auflage, S. 128: „Hefeteig aus Weizenmehl, Schweineschmalz, Salz, Hefe und lauwarmem Wasser herstellen. Nicht zu fest werden lassen. Nachdem der Teig gut gegangen ist, zu einem runden Fladen formen. Den etwa 5 mm dicken Fladen auf das gefettete Backblech geben, Rand leicht nach oben drücken, mit Olivenöl bestreichen und Tomatenscheiben sowie Sardellenfilets auflegen. Mit Reibkäse überstreuen und im Ofen backen. Sofort servieren. Je mehr nach dem Belegen mit Öl bestrichen wird, desto saftiger wird die Pizza. Pikanter wird sie durch Würzen mit etwas Oregano.“

Bereits der Hefeteig mit Schweineschmalz und der zur freien Wahl gestellte Reibkäse konstituieren einen krassen Geschmacksunterschied zu den Vorstellungen der Associazione Verace Pizza Napoletana. Bei der Rubrizierung der Pizza unter die „Bestandteile der Speisekarte“ ordneten die Verfasser ihre Pizza der Kategorie „Sonstige Fleischspeisen“ zu. Ebd., S. 122 f. Der einzige Fleischbestandteil des Pizzarezeptes ist aber das Schweineschmalz, dem daher eine dominante Note zugeordnet wurde. Weitere Pizza-Rezepte, die in der DDR publiziert wurden, finden sich: Linde, Günter/Knobloch, Heinz: Guten Appetit. Eine Weltreise mit Messer und Gabel, Leipzig [1967], S. 58. Diese Veröffentlichungen erschienen aber zu früh, um als Reflex auf die Karriere der Pizza in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland der 1970er Jahre in Frage zu kommen.

[22]

Vgl. hierzu Mocci, Grit: Pizza Margarete. Italienische Küche hat in Dresden eine lange Tradition. In: Sächsische Zeitung. 17./18. Juli 2020,  Magazin, S. 5; Marschner, Jörg: Gagliardi der Stolze. In: Sächsische Zeitung, 14. März 2002, S. 3. Nach Recherchen von Mocci brachte nach 1989 als erster Italiener Giuseppe Gagliardi mobile Pizzastände nach Dresden. Bald schon eröffnete er das Ristorante „Il Giardino“ auf der Zwinglistraße. Fast zeitgleich richtete Massimo Baldini die Pizzeria „Florenz“ auf der Erlenstraße ein. Die gehobene italienische Küche, die bekanntlich keine Pizza offeriert, hat Klaus Karsten Heidsieck, ein Gastronom, der unter anderem zehn Jahre Koch in einem 3-Sterne-Hotel in Mailand war, im Jahre 1994 in der „Villa Marie“ am Blauen Wunder etabliert.

[23]

Vgl. hierzu Möhring, Maren: Fremdes Essen. Die Geschiche der ausländischen Gastronomie in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, München 2012, S. 113 f.

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    Спасибо за помощ 🙂 .. нашли в инесте @steelcentury пришлите в ЛС ваше мнения Благодарюза ранее будем рады

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  125. Today, while I was at work, my cousin stole my apple ipad and
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  126. Hi would you mind letting me know which hosting company you’re using?

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  127. Instagram da Takipçi Satın Alarak Ek Gelir
    Sağlayabilirsin!

    İnstagram hesapları hem de önemli birer gelir kapısıdır.

    Özellikle reklam gelirleri biroldukça hesap sahibi için ek gelir oluşturmaktadır.

    şayet hesaplarınızda reklam alabilmek yahut Instagram üzerinden birşeyler satarak para
    kazanmaksa hedefiniz Türk gerçek takipçi paketlerini tercih etmelisiniz.

    Şayet bot yada bota benzer instagram takipçi satın alırsanız
    bunu gören hiç bir müşteri kitlesi size güvenmeyecektir.

    Hatta şunuda söylemekte fayda varki sizi takip etmek dahi istemeyebilirler.

    Bu sebepten sizleri kalitenin adresi olan takip201 e davet ediyoruz.

    En iyi Instagram takipçi satın alınabilir site.

    https://cutt.ly/instagramtakipcisatinal

  128. Takipçi Satın Almak Nedir?

    Pek çok kişinin takipçi sayın alma hizmetinden haberi olmadığını düşünerek bu yazıyı
    kaleme
    almak istedik. Özellikle sosyal medya hesapları üzerinden gerek satış
    yaparak gerekse de reklam gelirleri ile para kazanmak isteyen kişiler
    için takipçi sayısı oldukça önemlidir.
    Takipçi sayısı düşük olan bir hesabı takip etmek ister
    misiniz?
    Pek çok kişi bu soruya yanıt olarak hayır demektedir.
    Takipçi sayısı yüksek olan sosyal medya hesaplarının takip
    edilme şansı çok daha yüksektir. Bu nedenle oluşturduğunuz sosyal medya hesabınız
    için takipçi satın al hizmetleri sunulmaktadır.

    https://rebrand.ly/takipci-satin-al

  129. Instagram Takipçi Satın Almak Şirketler yada Şahıslar için Gerekli Midir?

    Kişisel sayfalar, firma sayfaları ya da farklı sebepler ile açılan sayfaların büyük kitlelere ulaşabilmesi açısından güvenilir
    takipçi satın alma işlemi önemli rol oynar. Bu şekilde hesapta olumlu değişiklikler görülür.
    Bu değişikliklerin başında tanınmak gelir ayrıca Instagram’da popüler olmak bir anlamda kazanç kapısı anlamı da taşır.

    Reklamlar, firmaların tanıtımı açısından yapılır.
    En önemli reklam da tanınan ve bilinen birinin yaptığı çalışmalar olur.
    Takipçisi yüksek bir hesap haline gelindiğinde büyük firmalar ile anlaşma yaparak sponsorluk alınabilir.

    Sponsorluk anlaşmaları sayesinde iyi miktarda para kazanılabilir.

    Instagram takipçi satın al mecrasında tanınmak ve bilinmek içintakipçi satın alişlemi sıklıkla uygulanır.

    Doğal yollar ile hesabı büyütmek uzun zaman ve büyük bir uğraş gerektirdiğinden takipçi kasma adına
    tercih edilen en etkili yöntem olan takipçi hizmeti ile hesap Instagram’ın keşfet alanına da
    düşer ve bu şekilde organik şeklide takipçi elde edilir.

  130. I am curious to find out what blog platform you are utilizing?
    I’m experiencing some minor security issues with my latest website and I’d like to find something
    more secure. Do you have any suggestions?

  131. Bu bakimdan platformumuz tarafindan size güvenli ve kaliteli takipçiler, kisa sürede saglanmaktadir. Hesabinizin kullanici adi üzerinden islem yapilmakta ve paketiniz güvenli sekilde hesabiniza tanimlanmaktadir.

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