Sächsischer Pudding

Der Suchbegriffe „Sächsischer Pudding“ führt zu Rezepten auf deutschen und schweizerischen Websites. Wer „Pudding saxon“, „Soffiato alla sassone” oder „Budin sajón“ eingibt, wird auf französischen, US-amerikanischen, italienischen und spanischen Websites fündig. Die Gourmetrestaurants in Sachsen selbst bieten das Gericht heute nur selten an. Von 1850 bis 1950 war der Sächsische Pudding ein Gericht der exquisiten europäischen Küche. Er wurde am Dresdner Hof gekocht, war aber auch ein Standardrezept prominenter deutscher und europäischer Köche.

Der königlich-preußischer Küchenmeister, Ludwig Ferdinand Jungius, publizierte im Jahre 1848 in seinem gastronomischen Lexikon eine „Sächsische Mehlspeise“. Auch der Mundkoch und Haushofmeister König Maximilians II. von Bayern, Johann Rottenhöfer, veröffentlichte 1859 ein Rezept „Sächsischer=Pudding“. Der französische Starkoch Urbain Dubois, der von 1860 bis 1880 für Kaiser Wilhelm I. arbeitete, nahm den „Pouding saxon“ 1872 und 1883 gleich in zwei Kochbücher auf. Der erste Starkoch der USA, Charles Ranhofer leitete über Jahrzehnte New Yorks Spitzenrestaurant Delmonico. In seinem umfangreichen Kochbuch „Epicurean“ veröffentlichte er 1895 ein Rezept für „Saxony Pudding“.  Sogar der größte Star der Kochszene um 1900, Auguste Escoffier, hat den Sächsischen Pudding 1903 in seines Guide culinaire (dt. Kochkunstführer) aufgenommen. Dieses kanonische Standardwerk der modernen Küche bezeichnete den Sächsischen Pudding als „Grundrezept für Auflaufpudding“.

((SLUB Dresden) Ernst Max Pötzsch: Vollständige Herrschaftsküche, S. 174 f)

In Dresden nahm Ernst Lößnitzer 1906 den Sächsischen Pudding in sein Großes deutsches Kochbuch der feinen und guten bürgerlichen Küche auf. Nach Lößnitzer ist heute das „Berufliche Schulzentrum für Gastgewerbe Dresden“ benannt. Franz Pfordte aus Delitzsch war einer der bedeutendsten deutschen Köche des späten Kaiserreiches. Sein Restaurant im Hamburger Hotel Atlantic lockte Gourmets aus der ganzen Welt an. Pfordtes Buch mit dem schlichten Titel „Kochrezepte“ beginnt das Kapitel über „Warme Puddinge“ mit dem Rezept „Sächsischer Pudding“. Das Gericht ist die Basis für eine Palette anderer Puddingrezepte.

Frankreichs am meisten gefeierter Gastronomiekritiker des 20. Jahrhunderts, Curnonsky, schrieb 1935, Henri Pellaprat habe mit seinem Buch L’Art culinaire moderne eine „Bibel der Küche“ verfasst. Auch Pellaprat eröffnete sein Kapitel über die Süßspeisen mit dem „Pudding soufflé saxon“.

Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg hat Alfred Walterspiel, der prominenteste Koch der frühen Bundesrepublik Deutschland, den Sächsischen Pudding aus seinen Menüs aussortiert. Solche Soufflés seien zu gehaltvoll für ein Dessert, meinte er. Mit der Nouvelle Cuisine, die für Menschen kochen wollte, die nicht mehr körperlich arbeiten, stand ein kalorienreiches Essen ohnehin im Gegensatz.

Der Sächsische Pudding war rund ein Jahrhundert lang ein Gericht der exquisiten europäischen Küche. Es gab ihn auch in der so genannten „bürgerlichen Küche“. In den sächsischen Regional-Kochbüchern, die vor 1990 erschienen, fehlt er aber. Auch in der DDR ist keine Rezepte für Sächsischen Pudding gedruckt worden. Man kannte nur Puddingpulver. Eine zweite Konjunktur erlebt der Sächsische Pudding erst, seit er in den letzten Jahrzehnten in Kochbücher aufgenommen wurde, die den Anspruch vertraten, regionale Spezialitäten darzubieten.

Soufflés wie der Sächsische Pudding kamen in der Napoleonischen Zeit in Mode. Sie waren etwas anderes als englische Puddings oder pikante Würste mit dem französichen Namen „Boudin“, die der Dresdner Hof schon lange servierte. Der Sächsische Pudding ist ein Brandteig, der mit geschlagenem Eischnee unterzogen und im Wasserbad gegart wird. Um solche Soufflés problemlos herstellen zu können, benötigte man Backöfen mit präzise geregelter Wärmezufuhr. Über diese hochentwickelte Küchentechnik verfügten um 1800 nur die Herrschaftsküchen, in denen hoch professionalisierte Spitzenköche arbeiteten. Als Erster publizierte Marie-Antoine Carême im Jahre 1815 in seinem Pâtissier royal parisien ein Rezept für Soufflés.

In Dresden veröffentlichte Franz Walcha im Jahre 1819 vierzehn Soufflérezepte. Er hatte als Koch eines sächsischen Botschafters in Paris, Wien, London und St. Petersburg gearbeitet, bevor er Dresdner Hofkoch wurde. Walcha kannte Soufflés bereits, bevor er im Jahre 1818 nach Dresden kam. Als Diplomatenkoch trug er dazu bei, das Aktuellste der europäischen Kochkunst in den Metropolen und Residenzen zu etablieren.

Dieser fluktuierende Austausch führte dazu, dass die Kochtechniken und Zubereitungsweisen sich an den Zentralorten der Kochkunst weder landestypisch noch nach Nationalküchen unterschieden. Vielmehr bediente sich die hohe kulinarische Kunst zu Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts europaweit derselben Standards. Auch Rezepte mit lokalen, regionalen oder nationalen Namensbestandteilen wurden nach den verfeinerten Methoden des Kochhandwerks zubereitet und auf diese Weise Bestandteil eines an Europas vornehmen Tafeln verbreiteten Kanons der exquisiten Speisen. Um 1800 war Europas kulinarische Ästhetik auf höchstem Niveau schon längst ein transnationales Kulturgut.

Der Sächsische Pudding trägt seinen Namen daher nicht, weil er aus der Küche der Region hervorgegangen ist und durch Verfeinerung zum Bestandteil der europäischen Gourmetküche wurde. Das Gericht belegt jedoch, dass Dresden zu den Orten gehörte, an denen die Kochkunst der frühen Moderne sich rasch etablierte.

Josef Matzerath

Literaturhinweise
Das Rezept des Dresdner Hofes für Sächsischen Pudding findet sich:

Josef Matzerath/Volkhard Nebrich, unter Mitarbeit von Paul Gildemeister, Christine Giersch und Markus Paschel: Produktküche – Süßspeisen, Gebäck und Getränke, Ostfildern 2016, S. 175: Sächsischer Pudding mit Aprikosensauce

Eine wissenschaftliche Abhandlung zum Sächsischen Pudding ist erschienen:

Josef Matzerath: Sächsischer Pudding. Europäische Kochkunst und ihre Transmissionsriemen. In: Brunetti, Simona/Klingebeil-Schieke, Josephine/ Pedron, Chiara Maria/ Piotrowski, Marie-Christin/Ruggeri, Antonella/Schreiber, Rebecca (Hg.): Versprachlichung von Welt – Il mondo in parole. Festschrift zum 60. Geburtstag von Maria Lieber, Tübingen 2016, S. 475-496

(Aufmacher: Jonas Klöber)

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